Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with a nearly non-symptomatic course until the advanced stages of the disease. RCC can be distinguished into three subtypes: papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) representing up to 75% of all RCC cases. Detection and RCC monitoring tools are limited to standard imaging techniques, in combination with non-RCC specific morphological and biochemical read-outs. RCC subtype identification relays mainly on results of pathological examination of tumor slides. Molecular, clinically applicable and ideally non-invasive tools aiding RCC management are still non-existent, although molecular characterization of RCC is relatively advanced. Due to stability and tissue-specificity miRNAs are promising candidates for such biomarkers. Here, the authors performed a meta-analysis study, utilized seven NGS and seven microarray RCC studies in order to identify subtype-specific expression of miRNAs. Their results revealed that changes in the expression of selected miRNA might be potentially utilized as a tool aiding ccRCC subclass discrimination and we propose a miRNA panel aiding RCC subtype distinction.

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