Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors revolutionized melanoma treatment in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, yet not all metastatic patients respond, and metastatic disease still often recurs among immunotherapy-treated patients with locally advanced disease. TNFSF4 (OX40L) is a co-stimulatory checkpoint protein expressed by several types of immune and non-immune cells, and was shown in the past to enhance the anti-neoplastic activity of T cells. Here, the authors assessed its expression in melanoma and its association with outcome in locally advanced and metastatic disease. This work points to TNFSF4 (OX40L) expression in melanoma as a potential determinant of prognosis, and warrants further translational and clinical research.

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